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Social research: The Internet


Internet. What is the internet? How does the Internet Work? Who owns it? How big is the internet? What internet services exist? What can I do? How did the Internet happen? What are the economics of the Internet? Where is the Internet going? Viruses. Internet Telephony. The Importance of the Internet. Computers x telecommunications = the Internet. Conclusions.


The Internet is a global network of networks enabling computers of all kinds to directly and transparently communicate and share services throughout much of the world. Because the Internet is an enormously valuable, enabling capability for so many people and organizations, it also constitutes a shared global resource of information, knowledge, and means of collaboration, and cooperation among countless diverse communities.
Starting at the top, each country typically has one or more backbone public internets which are connected to each other through a variety of global arrangements. At the regional and local levels, there are tens of thousands of organizations of every conceivable kind that have built their own enterprise internets and connected them to national backbones. Most of the networks are operated by organizations that either provide Internet access to internal staff or specialize in providing widespread public access to end-users.
There are basically two kinds of access provided :
host access where end-users connect their computers to become part of the Internet, or
terminal access where end users connect to a host computer which is directly connected to the Internet. The computer terminal itself is not directly connected.
The latter is the kind of service provided by nearly every public Email service provider to millions of people. Increasingly, new access providers are starting to offer Internet host access and an array of other services for computers that range from PCs to a mainframes.
There are now more than 30,000 networks interconnected by the global Internet - which is literally collectively owned by thousands of private commercial and public organizations. The global international organization for Internet coordination and cooperation is the Internet Society.
At April 1994, the Internet consisted of more than 30,000 networks in 71 countries. Gateways that allow at least Email connectivity extend this reach to 146 countries. At the end of 1993, 2.217 million computers were measured as actually reachable - with an estimated total of 20 million users. Network growth continues at around 10 percent per month.

Internet access is provided over almost any medium from simple telephone dialup to satellites or extremely high speed optical fiber connections.
Internet services number in the hundreds, and depend upon a combination of the access computer software and the available bandwidth. The most common services are file transfer, Email and fax messaging, and remote computer access. Other popular services include: information browsing using Gopher and World Wide Web; automatic information delivery via Distribution Lists and Netnews; information searching with WAIS, Archie, Veronica or even automatic agents such as Knowbot® programs; real-time written interactions using Talk or Internet Relay Chat and packet audio and video conferencing using, for example, CUSeeMe; directory lookup services to discover the network addresses of people and computers; or even multicasting of audio and video programs such as Internet Talk Radio and replay service.
Perhaps the ultimate value of the Internet, however, is enabling communication among millions of people and organizations who can be reached through the network, or who provide abundant and diverse information and software on Internet computer servers. For many pro-fessional, business, educational, and governmental activities today, the Internet is a indispensable tool. ...

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Tinklalapyje paskelbta2006-02-27
DalykasInterneto referatas
KategorijaInformatika >  Internetas
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