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Computers and Internet


Referatas apie kompiuterius, internetą ir jo vartotojus (anglų kalba). Introduction. Categorization of users. Emergence of Internet and Web. "Group dynamics". Internet and Web defy classification. Change in organization. Current trends. Restructuring squared. Conclusion.


The days are over when everybody who used a computer was seen an expert. The change in Information Systems (IS) over the last decades has led to affordable computers with interfaces that are relatively easy to use by the broad masses but nevertheless there are people who are more sophisticated in the use of Information Systems than others – at least somebody has to design the systems. This wide range of knowledge and skill led to the need of classification systems to distinguish between the different types of users, of which the one introduced by Willcocks and mason in 1987 will be discussed below.

The term ‘use’ is defined in a variety of publication. The Health and Safety Executive Regulation for example define users of computers systems as ‘people who rely on the computer for their work (and who will have no alternative means of performing the job)’ (Noyes and Baber, 1999: 18).
For their classification of users of Information Systems Willcocks and Mason define the tern ‘user’ as a ‘stakeholder who relates actively and / or is part of the computer-based system’ (Willcocks and Mason, 1987: 79). The grade of involvement is then split up into four groups of users as follows.
The first group, the primary users being ‘systems professionals dealing directly with and able to modify the system and its technology’ like analysts, developers and programmers – for instance software developers implementing in programming languages such as Java and C++, but also web-designers writing plain HTML or using specific software applications as their tools.
The secondary users are people who interact with the system to ‘provide input [and] receive output but as part of another job’, i.e. their work is not limited to a system development process. The computer might be used for tasks such as text-processing.
The tertiary users usually do not have direct contact with the system: they just receive ‘some output’; they are senior managers and sing responsible for overall objectives. It is the overview of the work in progress they might be informed of by receiving reports for example.
The quaternary users, ‘user type 4’, do not have any direct contact with the system at all. It is information about these people that is stored in the system – such as statistical / demographic data for instance.
Sometimes the secondary users are also referred to as ‘end-users’ as noted by Noyes and Baber (1999: 18). In comparison to the people who use the system during its development, ‘the end-users are […] more likely to have direct contact with (a final version of) the technology on a day-to-day basis’.
To further illustrate the classification the following relationship should serve as an example: A software company hosts a range of programmers, the primary users, who are implementing a database-driven system for a clinic. The project is documented by another person, the secondary user, who types reports such as minutes of meeting that are handed to the manager, the tertiary user, who might not only be responsible for this project but also for others concerning goals involving budget and human resources. The finished product is to serve as an Information System holding confident pieces of information of patients such as addresses and medical treatments. The patients then are quaternary users. ...

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DalykasInterneto referatas
KategorijaInformatika >  Internetas
Apimtis6 puslapiai 
Literatūros šaltiniai6
KalbaAnglų kalba
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Metai2005 m
Švietimo institucijaVilniaus kolegija
Failo pavadinimasMicrosoft Word Computers and Internet [speros.lt].doc

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  • 2006-09-13 IP:
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  • Referatai
  • 6 puslapiai 
  • Vilniaus kolegija
  • 2005 m
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